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Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Order of St. John, Knights of Malta, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers, Maltese: Ordni ta’ San Ä wann) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in approximately 1080 to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the Western Christian reconquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, it became a religious/military order under its own charter, and was charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the Order operated from Rhodes, over which it was sovereign, and later from Malta where it administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily.

Foundation and early history Grand Master and senior knights Hospitaller in the 14th century In 600, Pope Gregory the Great commissioned the Ravennate Abbot Probus, who was before Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Charlemagne, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, enlarged Probus' hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al Hakim destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem. In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, which was built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims traveling to visit the Christian holy sites. It was served by Benedictine monks.

The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by the Blessed Gerard, whose role as founder was confirmed by a Papal bull of Pope Paschal II in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. His successor, Raymond du Puy de Provence, established the first significant Hospitaller infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Initially the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force.

The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar, formed in 1119, became the most powerful Christian groups in the area. The order came to distinguish itself in battles with the Muslims, its soldiers wearing a black surcoat with a white cross. The Order's practice of acting first and legislating later is epitomized by the fact that it was not until 1248 that the pope, Innocent IV (1243-54), approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn in battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armor which restricted their movements, they should wear a red surcoat with the sign of the cross on it in white.

By the mid-12th century, the order was clearly divided into military brothers and those who worked with the sick. It was still a religious order and had privileges granted by the Papacy; for example, the order was exempt from all authority save that of the Pope, and it paid no tithes and was allowed its own religious buildings. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat in Syria.The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185.
Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes.

The rising power of Islam eventually expelled the Knights from Jerusalem. After the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291 (Jerusalem itself fell in 1187), the Knights were confined to the County of Tripoli, and when Acre was captured in 1291 the order sought refuge in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Finding themselves becoming enmeshed in Cypriot politics, their Grand Master Guillaume de Villaret created a plan of acquiring their own temporal domain, selecting Rhodes to be their new home. His successor Fulkes de Villaret executed the plan, and on 15 August 1309, after over two years of campaigning, the island of Rhodes surrendered to the knights. They also gained control of a number of neighboring islands and the Anatolian ports of Bodrum and Kastelorizo.

The Knights Templar were dissolved in 1312 and much of their property was given to the Hospitallers. The holdings were organized into eight tongues (one each in Aragon, Auvergne, Castile, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Provence). Each was administered by a Prior or, if there was more than one priory in the tongue, by a Grand Prior. At Rhodes and later Malta, the resident knights of each tongue were headed by a Bailli. The English Grand Prior at the time was Philip De Thame, who acquired the estates allocated to the English tongue from 1330 to 1358.

On Rhodes the Hospitallers, then also referred to as the Knights of Rhodes, were forced to become a more militarized force, fighting especially with the Barbary pirates. They withstood two invasions in the 15th century, one by the Sultan of Egypt in 1444 and another by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1480 who, after capturing Constantinople 1453, made the Knights a priority target.

In 1494 they created a stronghold on the peninsula of Halicarnassus (now Bodrum). They used pieces of the partially destroyed Mausoleum of Maussollos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, to strengthen Bodrum Castle.[5]

In 1522 an entirely new sort of force arrived: 400 ships under the command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent delivered 200,000 men to the island. Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to Sicily.

Arms of the Knights Hospitaller, quartered with those of Pierre d'Aubusson, on a bombard ordered by the latter. The top inscription further reads: "F. PETRUS DAUBUSSON M HOSPITALIS IHER".
Further information: Siege of Malta (1565)

After seven years of moving from place to place in Europe the Knights became established in 1530 when Charles V of Spain, as King of Sicily, gave them Malta,[7] Gozo and the North African port of Tripoli in perpetual fiefdom in exchange for an annual fee of a single Maltese falcon, which they were to send on All Souls Day to the King's representative, the Viceroy of Sicily.[2] (This historical fact was used as the plot hook in Dashiell Hammett's famous book The Maltese Falcon.)

The Hospitallers continued their actions against the Muslims and especially the Barbary pirates. Although they had only a few ships they quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans, who were unhappy to see the order resettled. In 1565 Suleiman sent an invasion force of about 40,000 men to besiege the 700 knights and 8,000 soldiers and expel them from Malta and gain a new base from which to possibly launch an another assault on Europe.[7]

At first the battle went as badly for the Hospitallers as Rhodes had: most of the cities were destroyed and about half the knights killed. On 18 August the position of the besieged was becoming desperate: dwindling daily in numbers, they were becoming too feeble to hold the long line of fortifications. But when his council suggested the abandonment of Il Borgo and Senglea and withdrawal to Fort St. Angelo, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette refused.

The Viceroy of Sicily had not sent help; possibly the Viceroy's orders from Philip II of Spain were so obscurely worded as to put on his own shoulders the burden of the decision whether to help the Knights at the expense of his own defences.[citation needed] A wrong decision could mean defeat and exposing Sicily and Naples to the Ottomans. He had left his own son with La Valette, so he could hardly be indifferent to the fate of the fortress. Whatever may have been the cause of his delay, the Viceroy hesitated until the battle had almost been decided by the unaided efforts of the Knights, before being forced to move by the indignation of his own officers.

On 23 August came yet another grand assault, the last serious effort, as it proved, of the besiegers. It was thrown back with the greatest difficulty, even the wounded taking part in the defence. The plight of the Turkish forces, however, was now desperate. With the exception of Fort St. Elmo, the fortifications were still intact. Working night and day the garrison had repaired the breaches, and the capture of Malta seemed more and more impossible. Many of the Ottoman troops in crowded quarters had fallen ill over the terrible summer months. Ammunition and food were beginning to run short, and the Ottoman troops were becoming increasingly dispirited at the failure of their attacks and their losses. The death on 23 June of skilled commander Dragut, a corsair and admiral of the Ottoman fleet, was a serious blow. The Turkish commanders, Piyale Pasha and Mustafa Pasha, were careless. They had a huge fleet which they used with effect on only one occasion. They neglected their communications with the African coast and made no attempt to watch and intercept Sicilian reinforcements.

On 1 September they made their last effort, but the morale of the Ottoman troops had deteriorated seriously and the attack was feeble, to the great encouragement of the besieged, who now began to see hopes of deliverance. The perplexed and indecisive Ottomans heard of the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements in Mellieħa Bay. Unaware that the force was very small, they broke off the siege and left on 8 September. The Great Siege of Malta may have been the last action in which a force of knights won a decisive victory.[9]

When the Ottomans departed the Hospitallers had 600 men able to bear arms. The most reliable estimate puts the number of the Ottoman army at its height at some 40,000 men, of whom 15,000 eventually returned to Constantinople. The siege is portrayed vividly in the frescoes of Matteo Perez d'Aleccio in the Hall of St. Michael and St. George, also known as the Throne Room, in the Grand Master's Palace in Valletta. Four of the original modellos, painted in oils by Perez d'Aleccio between 1576 and 1581, can be found in the Cube Room of the Queen's House at Greenwich, London. After the siege a new city had to be built – the present city named Valletta in memory of the Grand Master who had withstood the siege.

In 1607 the Grand Master of the Hospitallers was granted the status of Reichsfürst (Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, even though the Order's territory was always south of the Holy Roman Empire). In 1630 the Grand Master was awarded ecclesiastic equality with cardinals, and the unique hybrid style His Most Eminent Highness, reflecting both qualities qualifying him as a true Prince of the Church.

Following the Knights' re-establishment on Malta they had found themselves devoid of their initial reason for existence; their initial raison d'etre of assisting and joining the crusades in the Holy Land was now an impossible mission for reasons of military and financial strength along with geographical position. With dwindling revenues from European sponsors no longer willing to support a costly and meaningless organisation, the Knights turned to policing the Mediterranean from the increased threat of piracy, most notably from the threat of the Ottoman endorsed Barbary Corsairs operating from the North African coastline. Boosted towards the end of the 16th century by an air of invincibility following the successful defence of their island in 1565 and compounded by the Christian victory over the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the Knights set about protecting Christian merchant shipping to and from the Levant and freeing the captured Christian slaves that formed the basis of the Barbary Corsair's piratical trading and navies. This became known as the 'corso'.[10]

Yet the Order soon struggled on a now reduced income. By policing the Mediterranean they augmented the assumed responsibility of the traditional protectors of the Mediterranean, the naval city states of Venice, Genoa and Florence. Further compounding their financial woes; over the course of this period the exchange rate of the local currencies against the 'scudo' that were established in the late sixteenth century gradually became outdated, meaning the knights were gradually receiving less at the merchant factories.[11] Economically hindered by the barren island they now inhabited, many Knights went beyond their call of duty by raiding Muslim ships.[12] More and more ships were being plundered from which many Knights lived a life of idle luxury off the profits, taking local women to be their wives and enrolling in the navies of France and Spain in search of adventure, experience and yet more money.[13] All of which was in direct contrast to their monastic vows of poverty and chastity they swore upon admittance to the order. The changing attitudes of the Knights was coupled with the effects of the reformation and counter-reformation and the lack of stability from the Catholic church. This hit the Knights hard as the 16th and 17th centuries saw a gradual decline in the religious attitudes of many of the people of Europe and thus the importance of a religious army, and thus their regular tributes from European nations.[14] That the Catholic Order pursued the readmittance of England as a member state—previously suppressed along with the monasteries under Henry VIII—upon the succession of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I aptly demonstrates the new religious tolerance within the Order.[15] The Order even possessed a German tongue which was equal parts Protestant and Catholic.

The perceived moral decline that the Knights underwent over the course of this period is best highlighted by the decision of many Knights to serve in foreign navies and become "the mercenary sea-dogs of the 14th to 17th centuries", with the French navy proving the most popular destination.[16] This decision went against what the Knights stood for most, in that by serving for a European power they faced the very real possibility that they would be fighting against another Christian force, as in the few Franco-Spanish naval skirmishes that occurred during their period.[17] The biggest paradox when studying this is the fact that for many years the French remained on amicable terms with the Ottoman Empire, the Knights' biggest foe and proported sole purpose of existence, signing many trade agreements and agreeing an informal (and ultimately ineffective) cease-fire between the two states during this period.[18] That the Knights associated themselves with the allies of their sworn enemies shows their moral ambivalence and the new commercial driven nature of the Mediterranean. Serving in a foreign navy, in particular the French, gave the Knights the chance to serve the church and for many their King, to increase their chances of promotion in either their adopted navy or in Malta, to receive far better pay, to stave their boredom with frequent cruises, to embark on the highly preferable short cruises over the long caravans favoured by the Maltese, and if the Knight desired, to indulge in some of the pleasures of a traditional debauched seaport.[19] This decision shows the Knights' growing lack of allegiance both to their Order and to their religion. In return the French gained a quickly assembled and experienced navy to show stability to their subjects and stave off the threat of the Spanish. The shift in attitudes of the Knights over this period is ably outlined by Paul Lacroix who states:

    "Inflated with wealth, laden with privileges which gave them almost sovereign powers ... the order at last became so demoralised by luxury and idleness that it forgot the aim for which it was founded, and gave itself up for the love of gain and thirst for pleasure. Its covetousness and pride soon became boundless. The Knights pretended that they were above the reach of crowned heads: they seized and pillaged without concern of the property of both infidels and Christians".

With the Knights' exploits growing in fame and wealth, the European states became more complacent about the Order, and more unwilling to grant money to an institution that was perceived to be earning a healthy sum on the high seas. Thus a vicious cycle occurred, increasing the raids and reducing the grants received from the European nation states to such an extent that the balance of payments on the island had become dependent on conquest.The European powers lost interest in the Knights as they focused their intentions inland during the Thirty Years War. In February 1641 a letter was sent from an unknown dignitary in Valletta to the Knights' most trustworthy ally and benefactor, Louis XIV of France, stating the Order's troubles:

    "Italy provides us with nothing much; Bohemia and Germany hardly anything, and England and the Netherlands for a long time now nothing at all. We only have something to keep us going, Sire, in your own Kingdom and in Spain."

It is important to note that the Maltese authorities would neglect to mention the fact that they were making a substantial profit policing the seas. The authorities on Malta immediately recognised the importance of corsairing to their economy and sent about encouraging it, as despite vows of poverty the Knights were granted the ability to keep a portion of the 'spoglio', which was the prize money and cargo gained from a captured ship, along with the ability to fit out their own galleys with their new wealth.Along with a slave market in Valletta to rival the Barbary Corsairs.

The great controversy that surrounded the Knights' 'corso' was their insistence on their policy of 'vista'. This enabled the Order to stop and board all shipping suspected of carrying Turkish goods and confiscate the cargo to be re-sold at Valletta, often the ship's crew who were by far the most valuable commodity on the ship. Naturally many nations claimed to be victims of the Knights' over-eagerness to stop and confiscate any goods remotely connected to the Turks.In an effort to regulate the growing problem, the authorities in Malta established a judicial court, the Consiglio del Mer, where captains who felt wronged could plead their case, often successfully. The practice of issuing privateering licenses and thus state-endorsement, which had been in existence for a number of years, was tightly regulated as the island attempted to haul in the unscrupulous Knights and appease the European powers and limited benefactors. Yet these were not all successful as the Consiglio del Mer contains numerous accounts from 1700 of complaints of Maltese piracy in the region. Ultimately, the rampant over-indulgence of the Mediterranean was to be Knights' downfall in this particular chapter of their existence as they turned from military outpost to another albeit limited nation state in a commercially-orientated continent soon to be overtaken by the trading nations of the North Sea, themselves adept at piracy.
Life in Malta

Having chosen Malta, the Knights stayed for 268 years, transforming what they called "merely a rock of soft sandstone" into a flourishing island with mighty defenses and a capital city (Valletta) known as Superbissima, "Most Proud", amongst the great powers of Europe.

In 1301, the Order was organized in seven Langues, by order of precedence: Provence, Auvergne, France, Spain, Italy, England, and Germany. In 1462, the Langue of Spain was divided into Castile-Portugal and Aragon-Navarre. The English Langue went into abeyance after the order's properties were taken over by Henry VIII in 1540. In 1782, it was revived as the Anglo-Bavarian Langue, containing Bavarian and Polish priories. The structure of langues was replaced in the late 19th century by a system of national associations.

Not surprisingly, hospitals were among the first projects to be undertaken on Malta, where French soon supplanted Italian as the official language (though the native inhabitants continued to speak Maltese amongst themselves). The knights also constructed fortresses, watch towers and, naturally, churches. Its acquisition of Malta signalled the beginning of the Order's renewed naval activity.

The expansion and fortification of Valletta, named for Grand Master la Valette, was begun in 1566, soon becoming the home port of one of the Mediterranean's most powerful navies. The island's hospitals were expanded as well. The main Hospital could accommodate 500 patients and was famous as one of the finest in the world. At the vanguard of medicine, the Hospital of Malta included Schools of Anatomy, Surgery and Pharmacy. Valletta itself was renowned as a center of art and culture. The Church of St. John the Baptist, completed in 1577, contains works by Caravaggio and others.

In Europe, most of the Order's hospitals and chapels survived the Reformation, but not in Protestant countries. In Malta, meanwhile, the Public Library was established in 1761. The University was founded seven years later, followed, in 1786, by a School of Mathematics and Nautical Sciences. Despite these developments, some of the Maltese grew to resent the Order, which they viewed as a privileged class. This even included some of the local nobility, who were not admitted to the Order.

In Rhodes, the knights had been housed in Auberges (Inns) segregated by Langues. This structure was maintained in Birgu (1530-1571) and then Valletta (from 1571). The auberges in Birgu remain, mostly undistinguished 16th c. buildings. Valletta still has the auberges of Castile-Leon (1574; renovated 1741 by GM de Vilhena, now the Prime Minister's offices), Italy (renovated 1683 by GM Caraffa, now the post-office), Aragon (1571, now Ministry of Economic Services), Bavaria (former palazzo Carnerio, purchased in 1784 for the newly formed Langue), Provence (now National Museum of Archaeology). The auberge of Auvergne was damaged in World War II and replaced with Law Courts. The auberge of France was also destroyed in World War II.

In 1604, each Langue was given a chapel in the conventual church of St. John and the arms of the Langue appear in the decoration on the walls and ceiling:

    * Provence: St Michael, Jerusalem
    * Auvergne: St Sebastian, Azure a dolphin or
    * France: conversion of St Paul, France
    * Castile and Leon: St James the Lesser, Quarterly Castile and Leon
    * Aragon: St George [the church of the Langue is consecrated to Our Lady of the Pillar Per pale Aragon and Navarre
    * Italy: St Catherine, Azure the word ITALIA in bend or
    * England: Flagellation of Christ, [no arms visible; in Rhodes the Langue used the arms of England, quarterly France and England]
    * Germany: Epiphany, Austria born by a double-headed eagle displayed sable

The Order lost many of its European holdings following the rise of Protestantism and French Egalitarianism, but survived on Malta. The property of the English branch was confiscated in 1540. In 1577, the German Bailiwick of

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